Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a US-based corporation, formed in 1998. It is responsible for allocating Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and managing domain name system-services that were originally provided by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).
DNS (Domain Name System) helps Internet users from every computer connected to the Internet, either from servers or home PCs, have an IP address. It would be unrealistic for the ICANN to directly assign every computer an individual IP address. Instead, the ICANN allocates blocks of IP addresses to companies, educational institutions, and Internet service providers. These organizations then allocate IP addresses to computers that use their Internet connections.
According to ICANN’s website, the organization is dedicated to preserve operational stability of the Internet, promote competition, achieve broad representation of global Internet communities, and develop policy appropriate to its mission through bottom-up, consensus-based processes.
Some of the generic top-level domain (gTLD) include: .com, .net, .org, .gov and .edu. In 2000, the ICANN also added new domains (.aero, .biz, .coop, .info, .museum, .name, .pro).
Peer-to-peer Architecture is a type of network where each workstation has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities. This differs from client/server architectures in which some computers are dedicated to serving others. P2P networks are generally simpler but they usually do not offer the same performance under heavy loads. The networks themselves rely on computing power at the ends of a connection rather than from within the network itself.
P2P is often mistakenly used as a term to describe one user linking with another to transfer information and files through the use of a common P2P client to download MP3s, videos, images, games and other softwares. This, however, is only one type of P2P networking. Generally, a P2P network is used for sharing files, but the network can also mean Grid Computing or instant messaging.